Therefore, it not only enhances social inclusion, active citizenship , and personal development, but also self-sustainability, as well as competitiveness and employability. Evolved from the term "life-long learners", created by Leslie Watkins and used by Professor Clint Taylor CSULA and Superintendent for the Temple City Unified School District's mission statement in , the term recognizes that learning is not confined to childhood or the classroom but takes place throughout life and in a range of situations. During the last fifty years, constant scientific and technological innovation and change has had profound effects on how learning is understood. Learning can no longer be divided into a place and time to acquire knowledge school and a place and time to apply the knowledge acquired the workplace. It can create and shapeshift into the form of formal learning or informal learning , or self-directed learning.